Factors that estimated mortality included age, high-risk disease, chronic GVHD, and the use of PBSC grafts. Registries covering a total of 4,329 patients were reviewed, with a median age at diagnosis of 59. Throughout the group, these individuals were followed for a median of 10.5 years and a median overall survival of 6.9 years. After three years of follow-up, almost 72% of patients had not progressed. The study, “Long-Term Outcomes After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma,” was published in the journal Blood Advances.
The long-term survival of people with multiple myeloma after autologous stem cell transplantation has steadily improved since 1997 with the introduction of new drugs, a large review study reports. An important component of multiple myeloma treatment is autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), which involves using the patient's own healthy blood stem cells to replace diseased or damaged bone marrow. One risk factor for relapse was testing positive for small numbers of cancer cells after treatment (minimal residual disease or MRD) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Risk reduction was most pronounced among patients who underwent a transplant when they were under 18 years of age and those who received bone marrow as a source of stem cells.
However, the decline in late mortality appeared to be limited to transplants performed in childhood or with bone marrow as a source of stem cells, with no significant decreases for elderly patients or those who received a peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Researchers also identified a previously unreported association between peripheral blood stem cell use in BMT and overall mortality risk, as well as infection-related mortality risk and lung mortality. Hematopoietic cell transplantation can cure hematological malignancies and other diseases, but this treatment can also cause late complications.